The International Women’s Day (IWD) falls on the 8th of March. It is a celebration of respect and love for women around the world and their achievements. In the Chinese-speaking world, the IWD is also rather unfortunately known as “3/8 day”—after the month and date of the event.
It just so happens that “3/8” (pronounced sam-pat in Taiwanese and sanba in Mandarin) is a very common Taiwanese folk expression—sometimes derogatory, more often humorous—frequently (but not exclusively) used to tease women.
Few Taiwanese will suspect a correlation between the two—and that is right. There are, in fact, no relations whatsoever—just a silly coincidence.
Yes, this is a tale of two entirely unrelated yet, in Taiwan at least, bizarrely intertwined topics. This post endeavours to extricate this very unhelpful entanglement between the IWD and a silly Taiwanese expression—it will do so by tracing the roots of both to two 19th and 20th-century cities on opposite ends of Eurasia: St. Petersburg and Canton.
St. Petersburg, Russia: The International Women’s Day
No progressive, liberal and democratic society in the 21st century can truly call itself any of those things without first recognizing the need to respect the rights and achievements of women. The IWD promotes the appreciation of those taken for granted and gives proper respect to those most deserving of it. It is a truly significant and meaningful celebration.
The early history of the IWD’s is rather murky. It began sometime in the early 20th century—an era before universal suffrage—when women’s rights movements in the West first began to gain momentum among democrats, progressives, and socialists. At the time, numerous loosely affiliated women’s suffrage movements were springing up all across the West. Different communities, however, celebrated their own women’s days on different dates. These ranged from late February to mid-May.
The earliest record of related celebrations held on 8 March was in Germany in 1914. But it was likely not what begot the popularization of that date. The more likely candidate is a rally held in Russia in 1917, which in the traditional Russian calendar was on 23 February (8 March in the Gregorian calendar). That particular women’s day gathering in the then Russian capital of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg) very rapidly became a full-blown popular uprising known as the February Revolution, which toppled the Tsarist regime. It paved the way for the rise socialist governments in Russia and elsewhere.
It is possible that the Russian women’s day celebration of 1917, which launched an event as momentous as the Russian revolution, caught the attention of progressives active throughout the western world. It may have led to a push to officially commemorate the date as the International Women’s Day.
Although early accounts of the development of the IWD are unclear and its ultimate origins largely shrouded in mystery, the scenario described above is considered the most likely early account of the 8 March IWD.
Canton, China: Talk About Foreigners
Until the late 19th century, emperors and kings of the Far East strictly regulated contact between their subjects and westerners. Japan’s Tokugawa shoguns traditionally limited trade with Europeans to dealings with the Dutch at Nagasaki, the sole Japanese port open to western traders. The restrictions placed on contact with westerners were so strict in Korea that it came to be known in the West as “the hermit kingdom.”
In the vast domain of the Manchu emperor, trade with Europeans was permitted only on a few designated days of each month and only at select locations. The southern Chinese port of Canton (present-day Guangzhou) was host to one of these portals for contact between two worlds.
It is widely believed that settings such as these gave rise to the expression “3/8.” It is said that the pre-designated dates for trade with westerners were the 8th, 18th and 28th of each month, i.e. the “three 8th-days” or “three-eights. ” Soon, among the Manchu emperor’s Chinese subjects, “3/8” became a slang term for that which is foreign, unusual or unexpected.
In time, the expression spread to Taiwan, which was a remote Pacific outpost of the Manchu empire between 1683 and 1895, where it entered the Taiwanese language and was used to refer to any behaviour seen as silly, gaudy or awkward. It is most often used to describe women who make unusually conspicuous cosmetic or fashion choices.
The term can sometimes be used as an insult, but it is most commonly used in a humorous, teasing fashion—especially between close friends or family members.
Whether the expression originated in Canton or elsewhere is unclear. As with the origin of the IWD, the true beginnings of the expression is largely lost to history. Similar but distinct expressions, however, do exist in China and Hong Kong, though usually without the sense of humour found accompanying the Taiwanese incarnation.
Whatever the origin, it is clear that the expression, although often associated with women, has nothing to do with the IWD. The IWD, also, ended up being celebrated on 8 March because of historical developments in Europe and is unrelated to the Taiwanese expression. It’s all just a coincidence.
As stated above, most Taiwanese would not suspect that a meaningful connection existed between the IWD and “3/8,” but many have certainly quietly wondered about it (especially when Taiwanese children giggle at the mention of “3/8 day”).
This light-hearted post is not at all intended to make light of the special celebration that is the International Women’s Day. We hope we have been a little bit helpful in disentangling two entirely unrelated phenomena and allow readers to appreciate both the IWD and this folk expression.
Have a wonderful 3/8 Day!